ElasticSearch Java API之索引文档

Index API 允许我们存储一个JSON格式的文档,使数据可以被搜索。文档通过index、type、id唯一确定。我们可以自己提供一个id,或者也使用Index API 为我们自动生成一个。

这里有几种不同的方式来产生JSON格式的文档(document):

  • 手动方式,使用原生的byte[]或者String
  • 使用Map方式,会自动转换成与之等价的JSON
  • 使用第三方库来序列化beans,如Jackson
  • 使用内置的帮助类 XContentFactory.jsonBuilder()

1. 手动方式

// Index
IndexRequestBuilder indexRequestBuilder = client.prepareIndex();
indexRequestBuilder.setIndex(index);
indexRequestBuilder.setType(type);
indexRequestBuilder.setId(id);
indexRequestBuilder.setSource(json);
indexRequestBuilder.setTTL(8000);
// 执行
IndexResponse indexResponse = indexRequestBuilder.get();

测试,下面代码存储梅西信息到索引为football-index,类型为football-type,id为1的文档中:

String index = "football-index";
String type = "football-type";
String id = "1";
String json = "{" +
"\"club\":\"巴萨罗那\"," +
"\"country\":\"阿根廷\"," +
"\"name\":\"梅西\"" +
"}";

2. Map方式

// Index
IndexRequestBuilder indexRequestBuilder = client.prepareIndex();
indexRequestBuilder.setIndex(index);
indexRequestBuilder.setType(type);
indexRequestBuilder.setId(id);
indexRequestBuilder.setSource(map);
indexRequestBuilder.setTTL(8000);
// 执行
IndexResponse indexResponse = indexRequestBuilder.get();

测试,下面代码存储穆勒信息到索引为football-index,类型为football-type,id为2的文档中:

String index = "football-index";
String type = "football-type";
String id = "2";
Map<String, Object> map = Maps.newHashMap();
map.put("name", "穆勒");
map.put("club", "拜仁慕尼黑俱乐部");
map.put("country", "德国");

3. 序列化方式

// Bean转换为字节
ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();
byte[] json;
try {
json = mapper.writeValueAsBytes(bean);
} catch (JsonProcessingException e) {
logger.error("---------- json 转换失败 Bean:{}", bean.toString());
return false;
}
// Index
IndexRequestBuilder indexRequestBuilder = client.prepareIndex();
indexRequestBuilder.setIndex(index);
indexRequestBuilder.setType(type);
indexRequestBuilder.setId(id);
indexRequestBuilder.setSource(json);
indexRequestBuilder.setTTL(8000);
// 执行
IndexResponse response = indexRequestBuilder.get();

测试,下面代码存储卡卡信息到索引为football-index,类型为football-type,id为3的文档中:

String index = "football-index";
String type = "football-type";
String id = "3";
FootballPlayer footballPlayer = new FootballPlayer();
footballPlayer.setName("卡卡");
footballPlayer.setClub("奥兰多城俱乐部");
footballPlayer.setCountry("巴西");

4. XContentBuilder帮助类方式

ElasticSearch提供了一个内置的帮助类XContentBuilder来产生JSON文档

// Index
IndexRequestBuilder indexRequestBuilder = client.prepareIndex();
indexRequestBuilder.setIndex(index);
indexRequestBuilder.setType(type);
indexRequestBuilder.setId(id);
indexRequestBuilder.setSource(xContentBuilder);
indexRequestBuilder.setTTL(8000);
// 执行
IndexResponse response = indexRequestBuilder.get();

测试,下面代码存储托雷斯信息到索引为football-index,类型为football-type,id为4的文档中:

String index = "football-index";
String type = "football-type";
String id = "4";
XContentBuilder xContentBuilder;
try {
xContentBuilder = XContentFactory.jsonBuilder();
xContentBuilder
.startObject()
.field("name", "托雷斯")
.field("club", "马德里竞技俱乐部")
.field("country", "西班牙")
.endObject();
} catch (IOException e) {
logger.error("----------indexDocByXContentBuilder create xContentBuilder failed", e);
return;
}

备注:

你还可以通过startArray(string)和endArray()方法添加数组。.field()方法可以接受多种对象类型。你可以给它传递数字、日期、甚至其他XContentBuilder对象。

ElasticSearch版本:2.x

参考:https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/client/java-api/2.x/java-docs-index.html#java-docs-index-generate

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